La guerre du Liban et l'environnement

Dans toute guerre, l'attention se porte en priorité sur les morts, les blessés et les personnes déplacées. Au moment d'écrire ces lignes, le bilan de l'offensive israélienne au Liban serait de quelques 800 Libanais et 120 Israéliens tués, un taux habituel pour les conflits entre Israéliens et Arabes. Selon l'ONU, plus d'un million de personnes ont été déplacées, dont quelques 800.000 Libanais.

Les conséquences des dommages portés à l'environnement et aux infrastructures vont encore se faire sentir longtemps après la fin des hostilités. Les infrastructures peuvent être reconstruites dans un temps bien plus court que celui qu'il faudra pour restaurer l'environnement ou pour qu'il se restaure de lui-même. Dans le cas du Liban les deux sont étroitement liés, car l'essentiel des dommages portés à l'environnement provient de la destruction des infrastructures.

Dans la plupart des guerres modernes, les marées noires créées par des nappes de pétrole constituent l'atteinte la plus visible à l'environnement, aussi c'est celle que l'on remarque le plus. Avant le déclenchement de la guerre, les plages libanaises étaient parmi les plus propres de la Méditerranée. Beaucoup sont maintenant recouvertes de pétrole. C'est une mauvaise nouvelle pour une espèce rare de tortue de mer qui pond ses œufs dans le sable de ces plages, précisément à cette période de l'année. Plus de 100.000 tonnes de pétrole se sont répandues dans la mer.

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