Окружающая среда экономики

Ни одна экономика не является закрытой, автономной вселенной, управляемой правилами, независимыми от закона, морали и политики. Фактически, самые интересные экономические вопросы обычно находятся на стыке смежных дисциплин. Но нигде этот факт не является столь очевидным, как при рассмотрении взаимодействия между экономическими процессами и естественной окружающей средой.

Отличительной чертой этого обмена является то, что он управляется не законами механики, а законами термодинамики, особенно законом возрастания энтропии, согласно которому количество свободной энергии, которое может быть превращено в механическую работу, уменьшается со временем – необратимый процесс, завершающийся «тепловой смертью». Многочисленные исследователи, под влиянием пионерской работы покойного Николаса Георгеску-Рёгена по взаимосвязи экономических процессов с физикой, пытались – не очень успешно – сформулировать «энтропийную» теорию экономики и общества, особенно в 70-е годы прошлого столетия.

Энтропийная точка зрения предполагает, что экономические процессы вызывают необратимые последствия из-за множественных взаимодействий с природой. Мы исчерпываем запасы невозобновляемых природных ресурсов (например, нефти и руд), мы ухудшаем или изменяем качество других ресурсов (например, воды и пахотных земель), навязывая им ритм эксплуатации, превосходящий их способность к регенерации. Фактически из-за эксплуатации невозобновляемых ресурсов скорость экономического роста становится независима от скорости экологического восстановления, что усугубляет и без того проблемное состояние биосферы, вызывая, в том числе, необратимые изменения климата.

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