El medio ambiente contraataca

En gran medida, nuestros sistemas políticos y la política global no están preparados para los retos reales del mundo actual. El crecimiento económico global y el aumento de las poblaciones están presionando como nunca antes al ambiente físico y estas presiones a su vez están causando retos sin precedentes a nuestras sociedades. No obstante, los políticos conocen muy poco estas tendencias. Los gobiernos no están organizados para hacerles frente. Y las crisis que son fundamentalmente de índole ecológica se manejan con estrategias obsoletas de la guerra y la diplomacia.

Consideremos, por ejemplo, la situación en Darfur, Sudán. Este horrible conflicto se está abordando con amenazas de fuerza militar, sanciones y en general con el lenguaje de la guerra y el mantenimiento de la paz. Sin embargo, el origen indudable del conflicto es la extrema pobreza de la región que empeoró desastrosamente durante los años 1980 debido a una sequía que, esencialmente, ha durado hasta nuestros días. Tal parece que el cambio climático de largo plazo está llevando a una menor pluviosidad no sólo en Sudán sino también en gran parte de África inmediatamente al sur del Desierto del Sahara –una área en donde la vida depende de las lluvias y en donde la sequía significa la muerte.

Darfur está atrapado en una trampa mortal inducida por la sequía pero a nadie se le ha ocurrido que valga la pena abordar la crisis de Darfur desde una perspectiva de desarrollo de largo plazo en lugar de una perspectiva de guerra. Darfur necesita más una estrategia del agua que una estrategia militar. Sus siete millones de habitantes no pueden sobrevivir sin un enfoque nuevo que les dé oportunidad de cultivar y de dar de beber a sus animales. No obstante, todas las pláticas en Naciones Unidas tratan sobre sanciones y ejércitos y no se vislumbra un camino que conduzca a la paz.

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