La Universidad Empresarial

por Henry Etzkowitz By Henry Etzkowitz

Las universidades han interpretado un papel esencial en el desarrollo económico desde hace mucho tiempo, suministrando la capacitación, el entrenamiento, las ideas y la investigación básica que todos los países necesitan para asegurar el progreso y el crecimiento. ¿Pero qué tan directamente debe involucrarse una institución académica en actividades que generan ganancias? Si establece sus propios negocios o apoya a aquellos fundados por sus miembros ¿se arriesgaría la universidad a minar su tradicional independencia y su compromiso con el libre intercambio intelectual?

Durante las últimas dos décadas la investigación académica realizada en un creciente número de países se ha convertido en una empresa que busca ganancias. Según la Asociación de Gerentes Tecnológicos Universitarios, en el año 2000 se crearon por lo menos 300 nuevas compañías en base a invenciones que tuvieron lugar en universidades estadounidenses. Lo que inició como un modelo único estadounidense en 1980, cuando el Congreso de los Estados Unidos canalizó a las universidades los derechos intangibles de propiedad intelectual generados por la investigación académica fondeada por el gobierno federal, se ha extendido a países tan diversos como el Reino Unido, Suecia y Zambia.

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