El fin de la luna de miel de Sudáfrica

Se ha acabado la luna de miel entre Sudáfrica y la comunidad internacional. Los problemas internos y la inestabilidad regional hacen que la política exterior esté volviéndose una vía cada vez menos firme para el gobierno del Presidente Thabo Mbeki del Congreso Nacional Africano (CNA).

Los problemas internos de Sudáfrica –y muy en particular el recrudecimiento de la epidemia del sida– están bien documentados desde que el CNA llegó al poder hace más de diez años, pero la posición del país como participante en la comunidad internacional ha sido menos evidente. Había grandes esperanzas, tanto dentro del país como en el extranjero, de que Sudáfrica tuviera mayor influencia de lo normal en los asuntos internacionales, al capitalizar el extraordinario e inesperado acuerdo constitucional logrado por Nelson Mandela y F. W. de Klerk en 1994.

Al principio, una política exterior basada en la brillante reputación mundial de Nelson Mandela permitió al país proyectarse como un ciudadano internacional ejemplar. El gobierno aspiraba a desempeñar un papel constructivo en toda África, hacer de portavoz de los intereses del tercer mundo en las Naciones Unidas y otras instancias y promover el fin de la plétora de conflictos que aquejaban al continente.

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