Fin de lune de miel en Afrique du Sud

La lune de miel entre l'Afrique du Sud et la communauté internationale touche à sa fin. Les problèmes internes et l'instabilité de la région rendent la politique étrangère de plus en plus chaotique pour le gouvernement de l'ANC, le Congrès National Africain, au pouvoir, et le président Thabo Mbeki.

Les problèmes domestiques de l'Afrique du Sud, notamment l'aggravation de l'épidémie de sida, ont été largement documentés depuis l'arrivée de l'ANC au pouvoir, il y a dix ans, mais la position du pays comme acteur de la communauté internationale est bien moins évidente. Les attentes étaient élevées, aussi bien à l'intérieur qu'à l'étranger, vis-à-vis du rôle, au-dessus de sa catégorie, que l'Afrique du Sud pourrait et accepterait de jouer dans les affaires internationales en capitalisant sur l'entente constitutionnelle extraordinaire et inattendue mise en place par Nelson Mandela et F. W. de Klerk en 1994.

Une politique étrangère fondée, dès le début, sur la brillante réputation internationale de Nelson Mandela a permis au pays de se projeter comme citoyen mondial exemplaire. Le gouvernement aspirait à jouer un rôle constructif dans toute l'Afrique, à agir comme porte-parole des intérêts du Tiers-monde aux Nations unies et ailleurs et, enfin, à promouvoir la résolution de la pléthore de conflits qui rongent le continent.

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