世俗主义的终结?

首先是在二十世纪五十年代,更为突出的是在二十世纪九十年代,当意识形态的终结被庆祝的时候,没有人预见到宗教这个二十世纪前半叶政治的祸根会卷土重来,变本加厉。Daniel Bell 和Raymond Aron 写过法西斯主义和共产主义意识形态的终结,希望我们能进入一个实用主义的时代。在这个时代中,政治只是争执和辩论的话题,而不是信仰和纯粹世界观的话题。Karl Popper对政治的态度,即一种辩论和批判性的论述开始占据了上风。而在共产主义垮台以后,我们似乎已经很接近于历史的终结,意识形态政治被认为已经永远地消失了。

但是历史并没有终结,并且它永远充满了惊奇。福山的《历史的终结》和亨廷顿的《文明的冲突》在二十世纪九十年代的不到三年时间内相继问世,可是十年以后宗教的回归政治已经是再明显不过的事情了并且让许多人为此而遭受痛苦。

那些书并不仅仅是学术上的论述,而是反映了真实的发展。当伪宗教的极权主义意识形态被击败时,真正的宗教,至少看上去是如此,已经早就退出了政治舞台。在某些国家,对宗教信仰正式的忠诚是以姿势和仪式来表现的。然而当美国属于不同信仰的总统们对上帝和国家宣誓时没有人会对此有更多的想法。在威斯敏斯特大教堂,每一位新议会成员都要进行基督教的祈祷仪式,作为主持的议长可能是基督教徒、犹太教徒甚至是无神论者。并不是所有的民主国家都像法国那样有如此严格的正式的世俗主义,但是它们都是世俗论的。法律是由拥有主权的人民而不是由某个超人或其代理来制定的。

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