Paul Lachine

El fin de la Historia llega a Túnez

PARÍS – La “Revolución del Jazmín” de Túnez aún no ha concluido, pero ya podemos ver las enseñanzas sobre la democracia y la democratización que de ella se desprenden y que se extienden hasta muy lejos del Magreb.

Para poner en perspectiva histórica la Revolución del Jazmín, debemos recordar el 4 de junio de 1989, aquel domingo decisivo en el que los polacos expulsaron a los comunistas del poder con sus votos y, en el otro extremo de Eurasia, el Partido Comunista de China aplastó un incipiente movimiento democrático en la plaza de Tiananmen. Retrospectivamente, aquel día parece una encrucijada en el camino de la historia humana. Una vía conducía a la desaparición del comunismo y a un nuevo nacimiento de la libertad y la democracia –a veces sangriento y doloroso– en Europa. La otra trazaba un rumbo divergente, por el que China  permanecía sometida al partido gobernante, pero creaba prosperidad para unas masas empobrecidas mediante un asombroso crecimiento sostenido.

Mientras transcurría el revolucionario año de 1989, Francis Fukuyama meditó, profética pero polémicamente, sobre si la vía elegida en Europa presagiaba el “fin de la Historia”. Siguiendo a Hegel, Fukuyama sostuvo que la Historia seguía una dirección –y conducía a un destino determinado– por dos razones. En primer lugar, la incesante difusión de la tecnología y del orden económico liberal, que tiene un efecto homogeneizador. En segundo lugar, la hegeliana “lucha por el reconocimiento” ha sido una poderosa fuerza rectora de la Humanidad, hasta el punto de conducir a innumerables individuos al sacrificio final.

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/8GPQ5mv/es;
  1. Television sets showing a news report on Xi Jinping's speech Anthony Wallace/Getty Images

    Empowering China’s New Miracle Workers

    China’s success in the next five years will depend largely on how well the government manages the tensions underlying its complex agenda. In particular, China’s leaders will need to balance a muscular Communist Party, setting standards and protecting the public interest, with an empowered market, driving the economy into the future.

  2. United States Supreme Court Hisham Ibrahim/Getty Images

    The Sovereignty that Really Matters

    The preference of some countries to isolate themselves within their borders is anachronistic and self-defeating, but it would be a serious mistake for others, fearing contagion, to respond by imposing strict isolation. Even in states that have succumbed to reductionist discourses, much of the population has not.

  3.  The price of Euro and US dollars Daniel Leal Olivas/Getty Images

    Resurrecting Creditor Adjustment

    When the Bretton Woods Agreement was hashed out in 1944, it was agreed that countries with current-account deficits should be able to limit temporarily purchases of goods from countries running surpluses. In the ensuing 73 years, the so-called "scarce-currency clause" has been largely forgotten; but it may be time to bring it back.

  4. Leaders of the Russian Revolution in Red Square Keystone France/Getty Images

    Trump’s Republican Collaborators

    Republican leaders have a choice: they can either continue to collaborate with President Donald Trump, thereby courting disaster, or they can renounce him, finally putting their country’s democracy ahead of loyalty to their party tribe. They are hardly the first politicians to face such a decision.

  5. Angela Merkel, Theresa May and Emmanuel Macron John Thys/Getty Images

    How Money Could Unblock the Brexit Talks

    With talks on the UK's withdrawal from the EU stalled, negotiators should shift to the temporary “transition” Prime Minister Theresa May officially requested last month. Above all, the negotiators should focus immediately on the British budget contributions that will be required to make an orderly transition possible.

  6. Ksenia Sobchak Mladlen Antonov/Getty Images

    Is Vladimir Putin Losing His Grip?

    In recent decades, as President Vladimir Putin has entrenched his authority, Russia has seemed to be moving backward socially and economically. But while the Kremlin knows that it must reverse this trajectory, genuine reform would be incompatible with the kleptocratic character of Putin’s regime.

  7. Right-wing parties hold conference Thomas Lohnes/Getty Images

    Rage Against the Elites

    • With the advantage of hindsight, four recent books bring to bear diverse perspectives on the West’s current populist moment. 
    • Taken together, they help us to understand what that moment is and how it arrived, while reminding us that history is contingent, not inevitable


    Global Bookmark

    Distinguished thinkers review the world’s most important new books on politics, economics, and international affairs.

  8. Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin Bill Clark/Getty Images

    Don’t Bank on Bankruptcy for Banks

    As a part of their efforts to roll back the 2010 Dodd-Frank Act, congressional Republicans have approved a measure that would have courts, rather than regulators, oversee megabank bankruptcies. It is now up to the Trump administration to decide if it wants to set the stage for a repeat of the Lehman Brothers collapse in 2008.