Paul Lachine

El fin de la Historia llega a Túnez

PARÍS – La “Revolución del Jazmín” de Túnez aún no ha concluido, pero ya podemos ver las enseñanzas sobre la democracia y la democratización que de ella se desprenden y que se extienden hasta muy lejos del Magreb.

Para poner en perspectiva histórica la Revolución del Jazmín, debemos recordar el 4 de junio de 1989, aquel domingo decisivo en el que los polacos expulsaron a los comunistas del poder con sus votos y, en el otro extremo de Eurasia, el Partido Comunista de China aplastó un incipiente movimiento democrático en la plaza de Tiananmen. Retrospectivamente, aquel día parece una encrucijada en el camino de la historia humana. Una vía conducía a la desaparición del comunismo y a un nuevo nacimiento de la libertad y la democracia –a veces sangriento y doloroso– en Europa. La otra trazaba un rumbo divergente, por el que China  permanecía sometida al partido gobernante, pero creaba prosperidad para unas masas empobrecidas mediante un asombroso crecimiento sostenido.

Mientras transcurría el revolucionario año de 1989, Francis Fukuyama meditó, profética pero polémicamente, sobre si la vía elegida en Europa presagiaba el “fin de la Historia”. Siguiendo a Hegel, Fukuyama sostuvo que la Historia seguía una dirección –y conducía a un destino determinado– por dos razones. En primer lugar, la incesante difusión de la tecnología y del orden económico liberal, que tiene un efecto homogeneizador. En segundo lugar, la hegeliana “lucha por el reconocimiento” ha sido una poderosa fuerza rectora de la Humanidad, hasta el punto de conducir a innumerables individuos al sacrificio final.

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