Paul Lachine

La « fin de l’histoire » arrive en Tunisie

Paris – La « Révolution du Jasmin » se poursuit, mais les enseignements qu’on peut en tirer sur la démocratie et le processus qui y conduit portent bien au-delà du Maghreb.

Pour la replacer dans son contexte, il faut remonter au 4 juin 1989, ce dimanche historique où les Polonais, par leurs suffrages, évinçaient les communistes du pouvoir et où, de l’autre côté du continent eurasiatique, le Parti Communiste Chinois écrasait, sur la place Tian An Men, les prémices d’un mouvement démocratique. Avec le recul, le cours de l’histoire a paru alors se diviser. Une avenue menait à l’effondrement du communisme et à un avènement – quelquefois sanglant et douloureux – de la liberté et de la démocratie. L’autre ouvrait sur une alternative, avec une Chine fermement tenue par son parti dirigeant, mais capable de garantir, grâce à une croissance forte et soutenue, la prospérité à des masses dans le dénuement.

En cette année 1989 révolutionnaire, Francis Fukuyama lançait le débat, visionnaire mais controversé, sur la « fin de l’histoire », que semblait annoncer le cours des événements en Europe. Fukuyama y voyait une confirmation de la thèse hégélienne du « sens de l’histoire », à un double titre. D’abord parce que la diffusion constante des technologies et de l’ordre libéral économique exerce un effet d’homogénéisation. Ensuite parce que la « lutte pour la reconnaissance », postulée par Hegel, continue d’être une force motrice prégnante de l’humanité, assez puissante pour pousser nombre d’individus au sacrifice suprême.

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