Konec rakouského sociálního partnerství?

Jen málokteré střídání vlád přilákalo v Evropě tolik senzacechtivých novinářů jako rakouské volby v říjnu roku 1999, v nichž se do vlády dostala Strana svobodných Jörga Haidera. Po dvou letech, kdy byly zrušeny sankce Evropské unie, uvalené na zemi po zformování vlády, je načase zhodnotit dopad této vlády na rakouskou ekonomiku, tedy na oblast, v níž předvolební rétorika nynější vládnoucí koalice slibovala největší změny.

Abychom pochopili, co rakouská vláda dělá, musíme se seznámit se situací Rakouska. Rakouská ekonomika po celá 90. léta vykazovala solidní výkon, zhruba v souladu s průměrem Evropské unie a evropské měnové unie. Avšak ve světle vstupu Rakouska do EU v roce 1995 a podílu obchodu a investic Rakouska na formování sousedních ekonomik východní Evropy čekala většina Rakušanů vyšší růst.

Nižší ekonomickou dynamiku, než se předpokládalo, mají na svědomí dva faktory: zpožděná daňová konsolidace a pokulhávající strukturální reformy. Po pokusech o konsolidaci daňové oblasti v 90. letech obvykle následovaly hlubší strukturální deficity, a i když se hovořilo o tržních reformách, realizováno z nich bylo jen pár. Oba tyto problémy pak přispěly k rozpadu dlouholeté koalice sociálních demokratů a konzervativců (Volkspartei).

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