المؤسسات العالمية بعد الأزمة

أكسفورد ــ عندما انهار بنك ليمان براذرز واندلعت الأزمة المالية العالمية قبل خمس سنوات، رأى كثيرون في الأمر جانباً مشرقا: الوعد بإدارة اقتصادية عالمية أكثر فعالية. ولكن برغم طفرة من المبادرات في وقت مبكر فإن العالم لا يزال بعيداً عن تحقيق ذلك الهدف كما كان دوما.

فلم يكن مجلس الاستقرار المالي، الذي تأسس بعد قمة مجموعة العشرين في لندن في شهر إبريل/نيسان 2009، يملك تفويضاً قانونياً أو سلطات تنفيذية ولا عملية رسمية لإدراج كل البلدان. ولا يزال صندوق النقد الدولي ينتظر مضاعفة رأسماله (وهو تعهد آخر مبكر)، في حين أصبحت موارده الحالية مقيدة بشدة في أوروبا وتعطلت الإصلاحات اللازمة لإدارته. وقد حصل البنك الدولي على زيادة متواضعة في موارده، ولكنه لا يزال عليه أن يبني قدرته على الإقراض السريع وعلى المستوى العالمي بعيداً عن المقترضين الحاليين وترتيبات القروض، ومسار دخله آخذ في التضاؤل.

ورغم هذا فإن الحاجة إلى الإدارة الاقتصادية العالمية الفعّالة تظل أكثر إلحاحاً من أي وقت مضى. فالبنوك والشركات المالية الأخرى تتجول دوليا، وتساعدها في ذلك إلى حد كبير قواعد فتح الأسواق التي تشكل جزءاً لا يتجزأ من معاهدات التجارة والاستثمار، ولكن في غياب المسؤولية التي يمكن فرضها قانوناً لحملها على توفير الموارد اللازمة لتغطية خسائرها عندما تسوء الأمور. وبدلاً من ذلك فإن المخاطر الهائلة كانت مكبوحة كما يفترض بموجب معايير طوعية معلنة ومنشورة بواسطة خليط من منظمات "وضع المعايير" العامة والخاصة.

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