El motor del crecimiento de los mercados en ascenso

NUEVA DELHI – El papel fundamental de los países en desarrollo y en ascenso –incluidos el Brasil, la India y China– en el sostenimiento del crecimiento económico mundial resultó patente durante la reciente crisis mundial y ha quedado bien documentado. Es probable que esa tendencia continúe en 2011 y más adelante.

De hecho, el FMI espera que las economías en desarrollo y en ascenso crezcan un 6 por ciento en 2010 y un 6,3 por ciento en 2011. Las economías con mercados en ascenso no sólo han amortiguado las repercusiones mundiales de la reciente crisis, sino que, además, han ayudado a los países industrializados a invertir la tendencia recesiva del período 2008-2009, pero la recuperación sigue siendo frágil en el mundo desarrollado, pues su desempleo sigue en niveles de crisis.

Pero, si bien las economías en ascenso están impulsando la demanda mundial, aún sigue siendo necesaria una combinación idónea de iniciativas y políticas gubernamentales para velar por que sigan dando impulso a una recuperación económica mundial más rápida a corto plazo y sean los motores del crecimiento sostenible a medio y largo plazo. También es muy necesario apoyar las corrientes de capitales a largo plazo destinadas a las economías en ascenso para estimular aún más la inversión, en particular en sus sectores de infraestructuras, con lo que se inyectará una demanda suplementaria y muy necesaria a la economía mundial.

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