El surgimiento del “Nuevo Oriente Próximo”

Sin lugar a dudas, la política del Presidente George W. Bush para el Oriente Próximo se las arregló para lograr una cosa: ha desestabilizado profundamente la región. Aparte de eso, los resultados no son para nada lo que Estados Unidos esperaba lograr. Un Oriente Próximo democrático y pro-occidental no es una posibilidad a la vista.

Sin embargo, aunque las cosas no están ocurriendo como lo habían planeado los neoconservadores estadounidenses, están desenvolviéndose de todos modos. El fracaso histórico que es la guerra de Iraq, la debacle del nacionalismo árabe secular y el abrupto aumento de los precios del petróleo y el gas han producido profundos cambios en la región. De Damasco a Dubai, pasando por Tel Aviv y Teherán, está surgiendo un nuevo Oriente Próximo.

El viejo Oriente Próximo se originó en las fronteras e identidades políticas creadas por las potencias europeas tras la caída del Imperio Otomano en 1918. Su fuerza ideológica inspiradora era un nacionalismo secular inspirado en el europeo, que buscaba la modernización política y social a través de una acción de gobierno verticalista. Este tipo de nacionalismo, o "socialismo árabe", llegó a su punto culminante durante la Guerra Fría, cuando podía sustentarse en el apoyo militar, político y económico de la Unión Soviética.

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