Emergence d'un nouveau Moyen-Orient ?

Indéniablement la politique du président Bush au Moyen-Orient a réussi une chose : déstabiliser complètement la région. Ce résultat est loin du Moyen-Orient démocratique et pro-occidental que souhaitaient les USA.

Mais même si les choses ne se passent pas comme les néo-conservateurs américains l'avaient espérées, la situation a évolué. L'échec monumental qui s'appelle la "Guerre en Irak", la fin du nationalisme laïque arabe et la hausse du prix du pétrole et du gaz ont entraîné de profonds changements dans la région. De Damas à Dubaï, de Tel Aviv à Téhéran, un nouveau Moyen-Orient se forge.

L'ancien Moyen-Orient s'est construit sur les frontières et sur les identités politiques créés par les puissances européennes après la chute de l'empire ottoman en 1918. Il était mû par un nationalisme laïque d'inspiration européenne qui visait à une modernisation politique et sociale initiée par l'action gouvernementale. Ce type de nationalisme, le "socialisme arabe" a atteint son apogée durant la Guerre froide, quand il pouvait compter sur l'aide militaire, politique et économique de l'Union soviétique.

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