„Nový Blízký východ“ na obzoru

Blízkovýchodní politika amerického prezidenta George W. Bushe nepopiratelně dosáhla jedné věci: podařilo se jí důkladně destabilizovat region. Výsledky ani trochu neodpovídají tomu, v co Spojené státy doufaly. Demokratický a prozápadní Blízký východ je stále ve hvězdách.

Věci se sice nevyvíjejí tak, jak američtí neokonzervativci zamýšleli, nicméně se vyvíjejí. Historické selhání jménem válka v Iráku, zánik sekulárního arabského nacionalismu a raketově stoupající ceny ropy a plynu vnesly do regionu hluboké změny. Od Damašku po Dubaj, od Tel Avivu po Teherán se na obzoru začíná rýsovat nový Blízký východ.

Starý Blízký východ vyrostl z hranic a politických entit, které po pádu Osmanské říše v roce 1918 vytvořily evropské mocnosti. Jeho ideologickou hnací silou byl Evropou inspirovaný sekulární nacionalismus, který usiloval o politickou a společenskou modernizaci prostřednictvím vládní akce shora. Tento druh nacionalismu nebo „arabského socialismu“ dosáhl vrcholu během studené války, kdy se mohl opřít o sovětskou podporu ve vojenské, politické a hospodářské oblasti.

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