Pedro Molina

البحث المحير عن قواعد مالية عالمية

بروكسل ـ إذا كانت الأزمة المالية عالمية فالحل كما يُقال لابد وأن يكون عالمياً: التوصل إلى نظام مالي دولي قادر على العمل بصورة أفضل. ولأن المؤسستين اللتين تمخض عنهما مؤتمر بريتون وودز ـ البنك الدولي وصندوق النقد الدولي ـ تشكلان مركز النظام المالي الدولي، فلابد وأن تمثلا جزءاً من الحل.

إن أي نظام مالي دولي محَسَّن لابد وأن يتبنى خطين رئيسيين في العمل. الأول يتمثل في توسيع نطاق التعاون الدولي. وفي هذه اللحظة، يعكف مجلس الاستقرار المالي، الذي تضم عضويته بلدان مجموعة العشرين، على صياغة المبادرات في هذا المجال.

ويتلخص خط العمل الثاني في تعزيز القوة الناعمة للمؤسسات الدولية من أجل استهداف سياسات اقتصادية أكثر تماسكاً واتساقاً، وخاصة من جانب القوى الاقتصادية المهمة بالنسبة للنظام. وهذا من شأنه أن يُشرِك مؤسسات بريتون وودز بشكل مباشر في الأمر، وعلى رأسها صندوق النقد الدولي. فبعد الأزمة الآسيوية في أواخر التسعينيات تم الاتفاق على تعزيز قوة صندوق النقد الدولي، كما كلفت قمة مجموعة الدول السبع في كولونيا في عام 1999 الصندوق بلعب دور إشرافي ورقابي قوي لضمان قدرٍ أعظم من الشفافية وتشجيع التعديل المبكر في البلدان التي تعاني من خلل في ميزان مدفوعاتها.

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