Un élixir d’éducation ?

Nombreux sont ceux qui pensent que l’éducation peut résoudre tous les problèmes. Ils pensent qu’il est possible de transformer la société en injectant de l’argent pour accroître le niveau de l’enseignement. Toutefois, s’il n’y a rien à redire sur le pouvoir de l’éducation (beaucoup de spécialistes sont convaincus qu’elle forme des individus plus heureux et prospères), cet enthousiasme ne nous dit pas comment faire en sorte que plus d’enfants restent à l’école plus longtemps, ni comment s’assurer qu’ils y apprennent des choses qui leur seront utiles plus tard.

De nos jours, la quasi-totalité des enfants d’Amérique latine et des Caraïbes vont à l’école primaire et la plupart suivent ensuite plusieurs années d’enseignement secondaire (un progrès remarquable comparé à il y a cinquante ans). Pourtant, les enfants d’Amérique latine et des Caraïbes apprennent moins chaque année que les enfants des pays développés – ou que ceux de certains pays en développement. Les enfants des populations indigènes ont beaucoup moins de chances de réussir leur scolarité. Le Guatemala, Haïti, le Honduras, le Nicaragua et le Paraguay sont à la traîne, y compris par rapport à d’autres pays d’Amérique latine.

En dépit de l’enthousiasme généralisé pour l’amélioration de l’éducation en Amérique latine et aux Caraïbes, peu d’efforts ont été faits pour comprendre comment rentabiliser au mieux les investissements réalisés en la matière. Quelles politiques donnent les meilleurs résultats ?

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