Las opciones del elefante

NUEVA DELHI – El 16 de mayo, un mes después de que guardaran cola para votar en las gigantescas elecciones generales de la India, los votantes se enterarán de los resultados. Las elecciones, escalonadas en cinco fases, que entrañaban cinco días de votación a lo largo de cuatro semanas, en lugar de un “día de elecciones”,  determinarán quién gobernará la mayor democracia del mundo. Una sola cosa es segura: ningún partido obtendrá la mayoría por sí solo. La India está destinada a un nuevo gobierno de coalición.

Puede que no sea algo malo. Los dos últimos gobiernos de la India ocuparon el poder durante un mandato completo, durante el que se produjo un importante crecimiento económico, pese a que se componían de 23 y 20 partidos, respectivamente. La política de coalición da representación a los innumerables intereses que componen una sociedad compleja y diversa y garantiza que el país en conjunto acepte las políticas adoptadas en última instancia.

Pero el gobierno de coalición puede significar con frecuencia el del mínimo común denominador, pues la resistencia de cualquiera de los miembros importantes del gobierno a una política puede retrasarla o incluso frustrarla. En el sistema parlamentario de la India, si una coalición pierde la mayoría, el gobierno cae y a veces puede resultar más prioritario mantener unidos a los aliados que llevar a cabo las tareas gubernamentales.

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