لعبة النهاية في مصر

برينستون ـ تُرى هل يساعدنا تاريخ مصر الطويل في فهم الانتفاضة التي تجري الآن في القاهرة، والتي أطلِق عليها بالفعل وصف الثورة، وما قد تؤول إليه الأمور في نهاية المطاف؟ أظن ذلك. إن المظاهرات التي انطلق فيها الملايين من الناس للمطالبة بإنهاء حكم الرئيس حسني مبارك وحزبه الوطني الديمقراطي ليست بالظاهرة غير المسبوقة في البلاد.

إن تاريخ مصر عامر بالحكام الأقوياء والمشاهير (بداية من رمسيس الثاني في العصور الفرعونية، ومروراً بصلاح الدين الأيوبي، ومحمد علي، ونابليون بونابرت، واللورد كرومر، ثم انتهاءً بالثلاثي العسكري المصري المؤلف من جمال عبد الناصر، ثم أنور السادات، ثم مبارك). وهذا يشير إلى أن المصريين ـ رغم أنهم قد لا يفضلون بالضرورة حكم الزعماء الأقوياء ـ يشعرون بارتياح كامل في وجودهم، بل وقد يعتقدون أنه أمر ضروري.

من المؤكد أن الثورات الشعبية ليست بالظاهرة الجديدة على مصر. فقد ثارت الحشود ضد قوات نابليون الفرنسية في عام 1798، وضد النظام الملكي أثناء الفترة 1881-1882، وضد الهيمنة البريطانية في عام 1919 ثم في عام 1952، وضد السادات في عام 1977، وضد مبارك في عام 1986. وكان مصير هذه الانتفاضات القمع، وبوحشية في كثير من الأحيان، أولاً بواسطة القوات الأجنبية (الجيش الفرنسي في عام 1798، والجنود البريطانيين في عام 1882 وفي عام 1919) وفي وقت أقرب إلى الزمن الحاضر بواسطة الجيش المصري.

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