Le creuset égyptien

MADRID – Pendant que les Égyptiens attendaient dans l’inquiétude les résultats des élections présidentielles de leur pays, un soupçon de pessimisme transpirait dans le discours des jeunes gens et des libéraux laïcs qui ont réussi à abattre le régime d’Hosni Moubarak en janvier 2011. Le sentiment du « tout est possible » de la rébellion de la place Tahrir s’est estompé devant deux candidats auxquels les protestataires étaient carrément opposés : le candidat des Frères musulmans Mohamed Morsi et Ahmed Shafiq, un pilier de l’ancien régime (et du gouvernement militaire actuel), alors qu’ils se préparaient à s’affronter au second tour.

Le triumvirat des forces fondamentales qui animent l’Égypte depuis le début du Printemps arabe – l’armée, la mosquée et la foule de la place Tahrir chacune dotée de différents types de pouvoirs et d’intérêts – s’est donc effondré. La voix des personnes qui ont envahi la place Tahrir il y a 16 mois a dû se taire tandis que s’amincissaient les chances d’une passation du pouvoir du régime militaire à un gouvernement civil et démocratique.

Depuis qu’il a assumé le pouvoir à la chute de Moubarak, le Conseil suprême des forces armées (CSFA), mené par le maréchal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, ministre de la Défense pendant deux décennies sous Moubarak, s’est savamment occupé à enrayer la fine mécanique de la transition démocratique. Une semaine avant l’élection présidentielle, la Cour constitutionnelle alliée aux forces militaires a dissout le parlement nouvellement élu, sous prétexte d’irrégularités dans le processus électoral. Aussi, en prévision d’une victoire de Morsi, le CSFA s’est octroyé tous les pouvoirs législatifs ; empiétant sérieusement sur le pouvoir présidentiel ; saisissant les pouvoirs de nommer le comité mandaté pour écrire la nouvelle Constitution et prenant le contrôle des finances du pays tout en se gardant la prérogative de la sécurité intérieure et extérieure.

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