大麻疯狂?

伦敦—大麻精神健康有害吗?这一问题引起了多年的争论,其热度可谓如火如荼。总结起来是这样的:在科学界,一个一般的共识是,大部分大麻使用者不会产生严重的精神健康问题。不过,一些个体更容易因为使用大麻而出现副作用。

长久以来,人们一直认为大麻是伤害相对较小的毒品,对大麻的担心有些小题大做。一些医生报告说,过量使用大麻会导致精神病症状,包括幻觉、妄想和思维错乱。但大麻使用和精神病联系的第一个重要指标出现在1987年瑞典的一项大型研究中。这项研究对超过5万对象进行了超过15年的跟踪研究。报告开始时报告的大麻使用增加此后十五年中被诊断为精神分裂症的可能性。大麻使用得越多,被诊断为精神分裂症的可能性越高。

有趣的是,这一发现并没有刺激多少兴趣,并且在2002年以前再无类似研究出台。但是,2002年之后,许多研究探索了大麻使用和精神疾病之间的联系。2007年,一份对最佳研究的汇总发现,频繁(每日)食用大麻会导致精神病结果风险提高一倍。精神疾病的终身患病率大约为总人口的1%,因此每日使用大麻会使这一几率升至2%。

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