Die wirtschaftlichen Imperative des arabischen Frühlings

WASHINGTON/ISTANBUL – Seitdem die Revolution in Tunesien und die Proteste auf dem Tahrir-Platz in Kairo verknöcherte autoritäre Regimes stürzten und einen viel größeren – und immer noch wütenden – Sturm in der arabischen Welt entfachten, ist fast ein Jahr vergangen. Niemand kann mit Sicherheit sagen, wohin diese Ereignisse die arabischen Völker letztendlich tragen werden. Aber eines ist gewiss: es gibt keinen Weg zurück. Neue soziale und politische Bewegungen und Strukturen entstehen, die Machtverhältnisse verändern sich und es gibt Hoffnung, dass die demokratischen Prozesse 2012 voranschreiten und sich in der arabischen Welt ausbreiten.

Die Ereignisse von 2011 im arabischen Raum erinnern an andere weit reichende regionale Übergangsprozesse, wie die in Osteuropa nach dem Fall der Berliner Mauer. Natürlich gibt es Unterschiede, aber die durchschlagende und ansteckende Natur der Vorgänge ähnelt sehr den Revolutionen, die den Kommunismus in Europa beendeten. Ebenso wie die Debatte darum, inwieweit politische und wirtschaftliche Faktoren zu dem Ausbruch der Volksaufstände beigetragen haben.

Während die Sehnsucht nach Menschenwürde, Redefreiheit und wirklicher demokratischer Mitbestimmung die treibende Kraft hinter den arabischen Revolutionen war, spielte wirtschaftliche Unzufriedenheit eine wichtige Rolle. Genauso werden wirtschaftliche Faktoren entscheidend dafür sein, wie sich die Übergangszeit in der arabischen Welt gestalten wird. In diesem Zusammenhang sind drei grundlegende und langfristige Herausforderungen zu berücksichtigen.

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