Paul Lachine

Una revisión del milagro asiático oriental

HONG KONG – Hace casi dos décadas el Banco Mundial publicó su informe emblemático, El milagro de Asia orientalque analizaba por qué las economías de dicha región crecieron más rápidamente que los mercados emergentes de América Latina, África y otros lugares. De acuerdo con las conclusiones de dicho estudio, estas economías alcanzaron altas tasas de crecimiento mediante fundamentos adecuados, promoción de las inversiones, creación de capital humano y una apertura a las manufacturas de exportación.

Aunque no se limitaba a esos aspectos. El Banco Mundial también aceptó a regañadientes que los gobiernos intervinieron -sistemáticamente y mediante diversos canales- para impulsar el desarrollo, incluidas industrias específicas en lugares específicos en la forma de subsidios, incentivos fiscales y represión financiera.

Durante los años de las medidas de intervención, particularmente después de la crisis financiera asiática, el Consenso antintervencionista de Washington, partidario del libre mercado, perdió apoyo. Una nueva economía institucional (NIE, por sus siglas en inglés) ganó terreno y llenó el vacío que habían dejado los principales modelos, que ignoraron la importancia central de las instituciones para gestionar el cambio y la incertidumbre que afectan la asignación de recursos y la elecciones sociales. En efecto, ante la gran recesión y crisis europea de deuda actuales, la pregunta pendiente es cuál es el papel del Estado en la promoción del desarrollo y el crecimiento.

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