Paul Lachine

Un autre regard sur le miracle de l'Asie de l'Est

HONG-KONG – Il y a presque 20 ans, la Banque mondiale publiait une étude qui a fait date, The East Asian Miracle. Elle expliquaitpourquoi les pays d'Asie de l'Est se sont développés  plus rapidement que ceux d'Amérique latine, d'Afrique et d'ailleurs. Elle concluait que le succès de l'Asie de l'Est tient à l'application de certains droits tels que le droit de propriété, à une politique favorable à l'investissement, au développement du capital humain et au soutien à l'exportation de produits manufacturés. 

Mais ce n'était pas tout. Elle admettait à contre-coeur que les Etats intervenaient systématiquement à travers de multiples canaux en faveur d'activités spécifiques, au moyen de subventions, d'incitations fiscales et d'intervention sur les taux d'intérêt. 

Dans les années qui ont suivi, notamment après la crise financière asiatique, le Consensus de Washington, anti-interventionniste et favorable au marché, a perdu du terrain. Une "Nouvelle économie institutionnelle" (NEI) est alors apparue.  Elle comblait le vide laissé par les modèles classiques qui ignoraient l'importance centrale des institutions dans la conduite du changement et les incertitudes quant à la répartition des ressources et en matière de politique sociale. A la lumière de la Grande récession actuelle et de la crise de la dette en Europe, la principale question est celle du rôle de l’Etat pour soutenir la croissance et le développement.

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