La “trampa” del mercado laboral holandés que crea empleos

AMSTERDAM: A los holandeses les gusta considerarse líderes en política social. Sin embargo, como descubrimos en un viaje reciente a Holanda y Alemania, es en el ámbito de la política económica donde Europa busca el liderazgo holandés. Con un desempleo de alrededor del 10% en Alemania, Francia e Italia, la tasa holandesa, menor al 3%, es la envidia de Europa.

Holanda constituye ese raro ejemplo de Estado benefactor floreciente (“sobrecalentada” fue el término que utilizaron tres funcionarios de bancos centrales en Frankfurt para describir a la economía holandesa). ¿Cómo sucedió esto? Algunos afirman que se debe al “modelo Polder” de cooperación social entre patrones, sindicatos y el gobierno. Se equivocan. La cooperación social per se no rescató a los holandeses de los errores de los sesenta y los setenta. Entonces, ¿cómo se le puede dar el crédito por la recuperación de mediados de los ochenta y de los noventa?

Es cierto que los sindicatos en Holanda han moderado sus demandas salariales, pero eso no es lo que detonó el dramático incremento en el empleo. Más bien, fueron las reformas estructurales al mercado laboral holandés lo que propició la explosión del empleo. Destacan entre ellas la utilización amplia de empleados de medio tiempo y temporales.

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