El mercado laboral estadounidense según las cifras

NEWPORT BEACH – Políticos y economistas se unen ahora a inversionistas en un ritual que típicamente se realiza el primer viernes de cada mes y tiene importantes consecuencias para los mercados globales: anticipar, interiorizar y reaccionar al informe mensual de empleo emitido por la Oficina de Estadísticas Laborales de los Estados Unidos (BLS, por sus siglas en inglés). En los últimos años el informe ha evolucionado de forma significativa –no solo ofrece una evaluación del estado pasado y actual de la economía, sino que incluye perspectivas hacia futuro también.

Pensemos en el informe sobre el empleo de la BLS como un examen mensual exhaustivo del mercado laboral estadounidense. Entre sus muchas estadísticas interesantes, nos dice cuántos empleos se crearon y dónde; cómo evolucionan las ganancias y las horas trabajadas; y el número, edad y nivel educativo de quienes buscan empleo.

A pesar de la riqueza de los datos, solo dos indicadores son objeto habitualmente de una amplia atención: la creación neta mensual de empleos (que fue de 169,000 en agosto) y la tasa de desempleo (7.3% en agosto, la más baja desde diciembre de 2008). Juntos, indican una mejora gradual y sostenida de las condiciones globales del mercado laboral.

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