Paul Lachine

التهديد الثنائي للتجارة الحرة

اسطنبول ــ يبدو أن جولة الدوحة من محادثات التجارة العالمية توفيت هذا العام، ومن دون أن نسمع لها أنيناً وهي تحتضر. وفي حين قد يظل جزء صغير من المشروع باقيا، فإن الحقيقة الأساسية هي أن هذا الفشل فريد من نوعه في تاريخ مفاوضات التجارة المتعددة للأطراف، والتي غيرت الاقتصاد العالمي منذ الحرب العالمية الثانية.

إن العديد من الجولات السبع السابقة من المفاوضات ــ بما في ذلك جولة أوروجواي التي أسفرت عن إنشاء منظمة التجارة العالمية في عام 1995 خلفاً للاتفاقية العامة للتعريفة الجمركية والتجارة (الجات) ــ استغرقت سنوات قبل أن تكتمل، ولكن لم تنته أي من هذه الجولات إلى الموت نتيجة للإهمال أو عدم المبالاة. والواقع أن عدم الاكتراث بات اليوم واضحاً بشكل خاص في الولايات المتحدة، ولو لم تكن وحدها على سبيل الحصر. فقد التزم الرئيس باراك أوباما الصمت فيما يتصل بالقضية في حملة إعادة انتخابه، ولم يذكرها إلا بالكاد في حملته الأولى أيضا. والواقع أن المرء ليتساءل ما إذا كان ما هو على المحك الآن مفهوماً بشكل كامل في بعض العواصم.

لقد أسهمت مفاوضات التجارة الحرة المتعددة الأطراف الناجحة بشكل كبير في تشكيل العالم الذي نعيش فيه وتحسين حياة الملايين من الناس. فبين عام 1960 وعام 1990، كان شخص واحد فقط من بين كل خمسة يعيش في مجتمع مفتوح اقتصاديا؛ واليوم يعيش تسعة من بين كل عشرة في مجتمع مفتوح اقتصاديا.

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