La cuenta regresiva del cambio climático

LONDRES – Parece que se ha convertido en un rito de las negociaciones climáticas en las Naciones Unidas llegar al borde del colapso antes de que, rozando el plazo final, se logre un acuerdo intenso y lleno de polémica. Aún así, la complicada conclusión de las conversaciones de este año en Doha, en que cerca de 200 países acordaron extender el protocolo de Kyoto, no ha hecho más que fijar el escenario para negociaciones todavía más dramáticas  en 2015, cuando se debe alcanzar un nuevo acuerdo global.

El acuerdo que se acaba de cerrar tiende un puente entre el régimen climático antiguo y uno nuevo que aún está por definirse. Al extender por otros ocho años el Protocolo de Kyoto , que limita parte de las emisiones de gases de carbono de los países desarrollados, el acuerdo de Doha mantiene un marco legal internacional de importancia vital y, al mismo tiempo, preserva reglas que costó mucho alcanzar sobre los límites de las emisiones y el comercio entre países.

Sin embargo, el acuerdo también confirma que en 2020 el tratado de Kyoto se reemplazará con uno nuevo, en el que se eliminará la anticuada distinción binaria entre países "desarrollados" y "en desarrollo" y se requerirán compromisos de todos los países de modo proporcional a sus niveles de desarrollo.

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