المناخ والعد التنازلي

لندن ــ يبدو أنه بات من الطقوس المعتادة في مفاوضات المناخ تحت رعاية الأمم المتحدة الوصول إلى حافة الهاوية قبل أن يتم التوصل إلى تسوية انفعالية مثيرة للجدال بعد حلول الموعد النهائي. ولكن النتيجة الموجعة التي انتهت إليها محادثات هذا العام في الدوحة ــ حيث تم الاتفاق بين ما يقرب من 200 دولة على تمديد بروتوكول كيوتو ــ لم تفض إلا إلى تمهيد الطريق أمام مفاوضات أكثر دراماتيكية في عام 2015، عندما يكون من الواجب التوصل إلى اتفاق جديد شامل.

والواقع أن الصفقة التي تمت للتو أقامت جسراً بين نظام المناخ الجديد، ونظام جديد غير محدد المعالم بعد. فبتمديد بروتوكول كيوتو ــ الذي يحد من الانبعاثات الغازية المسببة للانحباس الحراري والتي تنتجها بعض الدول المتقدمة ــ لثمانية أعوام أخرى، يحافظ اتفاق الدوحة على الإطار الحيوي للقانون الدولي ويحتفظ بالقواعد الحسابية لإجازات الانبعاثات والتبادل بين البلدان، والتي تم التوصل إليها بشق الأنفس.

ولكن الاتفاق يؤكد أيضاً على أن بروتوكول كيوتو سوف تحل في محله في عام 2020 معاهدة جديدة، والتي من المفترض أن تتخلص من التمييز الثنائي العتيق بين الدول "المتقدمة" والدول "النامية". وسوف يتطلب الترتيب الجيد الالتزام من كل البلدان بما يتناسب مع مستويات التنمية لديها.

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