¿El Reino en Desunión?

Trescientos años después de que el primer Parlamento escocés votara voluntariamente su desaparición en 1707, el Partido Nacional Escocés (PNE) ha conseguido una mayoría en el Parlamento escocés, al que se han cedido de nuevo competencias y que es uno de los gran legados de Tony Blair. ¿Anuncia un gobierno encabezado por el PNE la ruptura del Reino Unido? Dicho en términos más amplios, ¿corresponde aún al nacionalismo, ese producto de la política del siglo XIX, desempeñar un papel en Europa?

La respuesta a la primera pregunta es casi con seguridad que no. Los nacionalistas obtuvieron sólo el 31,9 por ciento de los votos emitidos, mientras que los partidos que apoyan la unión obtuvieron el 59,6 por ciento. Se trata de una prueba positiva de que la representación proporcional puede dar resultados extraños.

Allá por 1957, el motivo para ampquot;poner los cimientos de una unión cada vez más estrecha de los pueblos de Europaampquot; fue el de hacer que la guerra entre las naciones europeas llegara a ser cosa del pasado y, con ello, aportar estabilidad interna a todas las naciones europeas. Durante cincuenta años, no se puso a prueba demasiado esa misión de la Unión Europea, porque los impulsos nacionalistas quedaron aplastados entre las dos grandes alianzas de la Guerra Fría. Una vez desparecidas esas limitaciones, el nacionalismo en sus dos modalidades –la creación de Estados al modo de Bismarck y la ruptura de Estados étnicos- ha recibido un segundo soplo.

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