Der Dissident und der Mahatma

NEU DELHI – Anlässlich der in diesem Monat unter Abwesenheit des Preisträgers stattfindenden Friedensnobelpreis-Verleihung an den inhaftierten chinesischen Dissidenten Liu Xiaobo, ist es passend, eines Mannes zu gedenken, der diesen Preis nie verliehen bekam: Mahatma Gandhi. Obwohl er leer ausging, besteht kein Zweifel an der weltweiten Bedeutung Gandhijis – auch für Liu.

Das Bild des Mahatma erscheint heute in Werbekampagnen für alles, angefangen von Apple-Computern bis zu Montblanc-Füllfederhaltern. Als Richard Attenboroughs Film Gandhi im Jahr 1983 bei der Oscar-Verleihung abräumte, stand auf den Filmplakaten zu lesen „Gandhis Triumph veränderte die Welt für immer.“ Aber stimmt das wirklich?

Die Theorie eines von Gandhi eingeleiteten globalen Wandels beruht prinzipiell auf dem Wirken des amerikanischen Bürgerrechtskämpfer Martin Luther King, Jr., der einen Vortrag Gandhis besuchte, ein halbes Dutzend Bücher über den Mahatma kaufte und Satyagraha sowohl als Prinzip als auch als Methode anwendete. Während seines Kampfes gegen die Rassentrennung im Süden der USA setzte King Gewaltlosigkeit wirksamer ein als irgendjemand anderer außerhalb Indiens. „Hass erzeugt Hass. Gewalt erzeugt Gewalt“, erklärte er in denkwürdiger Weise. „Wir müssen den Kräften des Hasses mit der Bereitschaft begegnen, Schmerz und Leiden auf uns zu nehmen.“

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