Le dissident et le Mahatma

NEW DELHI – Alors que le lauréat du prix Nobel de la paix 2010, Liu Xiaobo, le dissident chinois emprisonné pour subversion, sera absent lors de la remise du prix, il peut être intéressant de penser à l’homme qui n’a jamais obtenu ce prix : le mahatma Gandhi. Malgré cela, son importance pour le monde – y compris pour Liu – ne fait aucun doute.

L’image de Gandhi apparaît aujourd’hui dans des campagnes de publicité, des ordinateurs Apple aux stylos à plume Montblanc. Lorsque le film Gandhi de Richard Attenborough a raflé les Oscars en 1983, les affiches du film proclamaient que « le triomphe de Gandhi a changé le monde pour toujours ». Mais est-ce vraiment le cas ?

L’argument en faveur d’un changement mondial initié par Gandhi repose essentiellement sur les épaules du défenseur américain des droits civiques Martin Luther King Jr., qui a assisté à une conférence de Gandhi, lu  plusieurs de ses livres, et adopté le satyagraha, ou le principe de non-violence, à la fois comme précepte et comme méthode. A la tête de la lutte pour mettre fin à la ségrégation dans le Sud des Etats-Unis, King a plus efficacement utilisé la non-violence que quiconque en dehors de l’Inde. « La haine engendre la haine. La violence engendre la violence » a-t-il dit de manière mémorable, « Nous devons vaincre les forces du mal avec la force de notre âme ».

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