Disident a Mahátma

DILLÍ – Až se bude tento měsíc předávat Nobelova cena míru v nepřítomnosti letošního laureáta, uvězněného čínského disidenta Lioua Siao-po, možná by bylo moudré vzpomenout na muže, který tuto cenu nikdy nezískal: na Mahátmu Gándhího. Navzdory tomuto opomenutí totiž nemůže být pochyb o Gándhího celosvětovém významu – včetně významu pro Lioua.

Mahátmův obraz dnes figuruje v reklamních kampaních na všechno možné, od počítačů Apple až po pera Mont Blanc. Když film Gándhí Richarda Attenborougha získal v roce 1983 řadu Oscarů, hlásaly filmové plakáty, že „Gándhího vítězství navždy změnilo svět“. Opravdu ho však změnilo?

Tvrzení, že Gándhího postoje znamenaly celosvětovou změnu, se opírá převážně o amerického bojovníka za občanská práva Martina Luthera Kinga, který navštívil přednášku o Gándhím, koupil si o Mahátmovi několik knih a přijal nenásilný odpor satjágraha jako pravidlo i metodu. Při vedení boje za zrušení segregace na jihu Spojených států používal King nenásilí účinněji než kdokoliv jiný za hranicemi Indie. „Nenávist plodí nenávist. Násilí plodí násilí,“ hlásal v dnes již legendárních projevech. „Se silami nenávisti se musíme utkat silou duše.“

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