Rozvojové kolo, které nebylo

Ať už bude proveden jakýkoli pokus o zakrytí ostudy, schůzka v Hongkongu, která má v půli prosince uzavřít současné Rozvojové kolo rozhovorů o světovém obchodu, v jediném testu, na němž záleží, téměř určitě neobstojí: totiž zda vzniklá dohoda prosazuje rozvoj nejchudších zemí. Cynici řeknou, že vyspělé země zcela v tradici předchozích obchodních dohod hodlaly poskytnout pouze nezbytné minimum ústupků a zároveň vyprodukovat maximum rétorického přikrášlení, aby získaly rozvojové země na svou stranu.

Co se od začátku Rozvojového kola v Dauhá v listopadu 2001 odehrálo, pro mne bylo velikým zklamáním. Coby hlavní ekonom Světové banky jsem posuzoval Uruguayské kolo roku 1994 a došel jsem k závěru, že jeho agenda i výsledky diskriminovaly rozvojové země. V březnu 1999 jsem navštívil ústředí Světové obchodní organizace v Ženevě, abych se zasadil o rozvojové kolo, které by nerovnosti napravilo. Na okamžik jsem si myslel, že moje žádost byla vyslyšena.

Před dvěma lety mě požádal Commonwealth, různorodá skupina hlavně dřívějších britských kolonií, států severní i jižní polokoule, abych vypracoval studii o tom, jak by vypadalo skutečné rozvojové kolo. Tento měsíc nakladatelství Oxford University Press vydává rozšířenou verzi této zprávy, nazvanou Fair Trade for All: How Trade can Promote Development (Spravedlivý obchod pro všechny: Jak může obchod podpořit rozvoj).

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