La paradoja de la democracia

PARIS – Elecciones robadas en Irán, disputadas en Afganistán y caricaturizadas en Gabón: las votaciones recientes en estos y varios otros países no marcan tanto el avance de la democracia como demuestran la ausencia del imperio de la ley.

Por supuesto, no es ninguna novedad el que haya elecciones que conducen a resultados indeseables, e incluso al despotismo. Después de todo, Hitler llegó al poder en Alemania en 1933 a través de elecciones libres, justas y competitivas. Más aun, las elecciones problemáticas son un reto especifico para Occidente, que es al mismo tiempo el portador de un mensaje democrático universal y el culpable de un pasado imperialista que socava la capacidad de persuasión y la utilidad de ese mensaje.

En un conocido ensayo de 2004, por ejemplo, Fareed Zakaria, autor de origen indio, describió los peligros de lo que llamó la “democracia iliberal”, Para Zakaria, Estados Unidos debió apoyar a un líder moderado como el General Pervez Musharraf en Pakistán, a pesar del hecho de que no había llegado al poder mediante las urnas. Por el contrario, argumentó, es necesario oponerse al presidente populista de Venezuela, Hugo Chávez, que s í fue electo democráticamente.

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