Парадокс демократии

ПАРИЖ. Выборы в Иране были украдены, в Афганистане подвергнуты сомнению, а в Габоне были осмеяны: итоги голосования в этих и многих других странах не столько показывают всемирный успех демократии, сколько демонстрируют отсутствие правовых норм.

Конечно, выборы, которые ведут к ограничению свободы и даже к деспотизму, не являются новым феноменом. Гитлер, в конце концов, пришел к власти в Германии в 1933 году через свободные, справедливые выборы, в которых принимали участие другие претенденты. Более того, проблематичные выборы представляют собой специфическую задачу для Запада, который одновременно является и носителем всемирного демократического послания, и олицетворением империалистического прошлого, что ставит под сомнение убедительность и полезность самого этого послания.

Например, в известном очерке 2004 года рожденный в Индии автор Фарид Закариа описал опасность того, что он назвал «несвободной демократией». По мнению Закариа, Америка должна была поддержать умеренного лидера, такого как генерал Первез Мушарраф в Пакистане, несмотря на тот факт, что он пришел к власти не через выборы. И наоборот, Закариа привел доводы, что популистскому президенту Венесуэлы Уго Чавесу, который был избран законно, следовало оказать противодействие.

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