Das Demokratie-Paradoxon

PARIS: Gestohlene Wahlen im Iran, umstrittene in Afghanistan sowie die Karikatur einer Wahl in Gabun: Die jüngsten Urnengänge in diesen und vielen anderen Ländern markieren weniger die weltweiten Fortschritte der Demokratie, als dass sie ein Beleg fehlender Rechtsstaatlichkeit sind.

Natürlich sind Wahlen, die zu illiberalen Ergebnissen und selbst zur Gewaltherrschaft führen, kein neues Phänomen. Hitler kam schließlich in Deutschland 1933 durch eine freie, faire und auf dem Wettstreit zwischen den Parteien beruhende Wahl an die Macht. Zugleich jedoch stellen problematische Wahlen für den Westen, der zugleich der Verkünder einer universellen demokratischen Botschaft und für eine imperialistische Vergangenheit verantwortlich ist, die die Überzeugungskraft und die Brauchbarkeit dieser Botschaft untergräbt, eine besondere Herausforderung dar.

So beschreibt etwa der in Indien geborene Schriftsteller Fareed Zakaria in einem viel beachteten Essay aus dem Jahre 2004 die Gefahr dessen, was er als „illiberale Demokratie“ bezeichnet. Zakaria argumentiert, dass Amerika einen gemäßigten Führer wie General Pervez Musharraf in Pakistan unterstützen musste, trotz der Tatsache, dass dieser nicht durch Wahlen an die Macht gekommen war. Im Gegensatz hierzu, so Zakaria, müsse man sich Venezuelas populistischem Präsidenten Hugo Chávez, der seinerseits auf legitime Weise gewählt wurde, entgegenstellen.

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