发展回合的崩溃

世界贸易发展回合谈判在于为发展中国家开拓经济增长和减少贫困的机会。现在,这一回合的希望看起来破灭了。尽管到处都可能有鳄鱼眼泪,失望的程度需要加以矫正。世界贸易组织总干事拉米长久以来一直致力于降低人们的期望,以至于很明显,无论最终达成什么结果,都只会给贫穷国家带来有限的利益。

谈判失败不出人们所料。美国和欧盟一直没有遵守它们2001年在多哈作出的保证,即纠正上一次贸易谈判的不平衡。上一轮谈判极为不公平,以至于世界上最贫穷国家实际上变得更为贫穷。美国缺乏对多边主义的承诺、其顽固及其愿意将政治上的权宜之计置于原则之上再一次获胜。11月份美国中期选举将近,布什总统无法“牺牲”2万5千名富有的棉花农场主或者1万名生意兴隆的大米农场主以及他们的竞选捐款。很少有如此众多的人为了保护如此少人的利益而不得不放弃如此多的东西。

贸易谈判由于农业问题而陷入僵局。农业补贴和贸易限制仍然要比制造业高出许多。发展中国家大约70%的人口直接或者间接依赖于农业,他们成为当前体制下的失败者。但是对农业的关注转移了对一个远更为广泛的议题的关注。我们原本可以采取其他方式来处理这些议题,从而使得南北都受益。

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