Закат парламентаризма

Август традиционно является месяцем, когда во многих странах парламент распускается на летние каникулы, что дает хорошую возможность разобраться, почему этот государственный орган потерял былую значимость.

Британский премьер-министр Тони Блэр не единственный в Европе, кого сегодня обвиняют в «президентализме». Канцлер Германии Герхард Шредер подвергается аналогичным обвинениям в ходе текущей предвыборной кампании в Германии. Премьер-министру Италии Сильвио Берлускони вообще не нравится, когда его называют премьер-министром. Поскольку формально он является президентом Совета (министров), Берлускони настаивает на использовании титула «президент». Франция же является президентской демократией.

Для многих слово президентализм ассоциируется с американской конституцией, однако, те, кто видит в этой тенденции еще один признак американизации Европы, ошибаются. Американские президенты обладают полномочиями, строго ограниченными Конгрессом на основании Конституции США; исполнительная власть в США - лишь одна из трех самостоятельных ветвей власти. В противоположность американской системе, европейские премьер-министры являются тем, что британский лорд-канцлер однажды назвал «выборными диктаторами».

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