Der Niedergang der Parlamente

August ist traditionell der Monat, in dem die Parlamente sich in die Sommerpause verabschieden. Die Gelegenheit bietet sich an zu untersuchen, warum sie so geschwächt sind.

Der britische Premier Tony Blair ist in Europa nicht der Einzige, dem heutzutage "Präsidentialismus" vorgeworfen wird. Der deutsche Bundeskanzler Gerhard Schröder sieht sich im aktuellen Wahlkampf in Deutschland mit der gleichen Anschuldigung konfrontiert. Italiens Premierminister Silvio Berlusconi möchte noch nicht einmal als Premierminister bezeichnet werden. Da er genau genommen Präsident des (Minister-) Rates ist, besteht er auf die Verwendung des Präsidententitels. Frankreich ist, selbstverständlich, eine präsidentielle Demokratie.

Für viele klingt "Präsidentialismus" wie die amerikanische Verfassung; doch diejenigen, die hinter dem aktuellen Trend eine weitere Facette der Amerikanisierung Europas vermuten, liegen falsch. Amerikanische Präsidenten haben Befugnisse, die gemäß der US-Verfassung durch den Kongress stark eingeschränkt sind; sie sind lediglich ein Teil einer Dreierkonstellation geteilter Gewalten. Im Gegensatz dazu sind die "präsidentiellen" Premierminister Europas das, was ein britischer Lordkanzler einmal "gewählte Diktatoren" nannte.

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