La marcha mundial hacia la paz

CANBERRA – Si teníamos la esperanza de alcanzar la paz en nuestros tiempos, el año 2012 no la trajo consigo. Los conflictos se hicieron cada vez más sangrientos en Siria, continuaron avanzando de manera implacable en Afganistán, y se encendieron periódicamente en el África occidental, central y oriental. Se vivieron varios episodios de violencia motivada por razones étnicas, sectarias y políticas en Myanmar (Birmania), Asia del Sur, como también en todo el Oriente Medio. Las tensiones entre China y sus vecinos escalaron en el Mar de China Meridional, y entre China y Japón en el Mar de China Oriental. Las preocupaciones acerca de los programas nucleares de Corea del Sur e Irán siguen sin resolverse.

Y, sin embargo, muchas temidas erupciones dentro y entre Estados no llegaron a ocurrir. Una fuerte presión internacional ayudó a contener rápidamente una segunda guerra de Gaza. Se garantizó un acuerdo de paz largamente buscado para Mindanao, la isla al sur de Filipinas. Se han dado grandes pasos hacia el logro de la paz y reconciliación sostenibles en Myanmar. No ocurrió una nueva catástrofe genocida de grandes proporciones. Y, a pesar de la parálisis del Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas con relación a Siria, los Estados miembros de la Asamblea General de la ONU dejaron en claro la continuidad de su abrumadora aceptación de la responsabilidad de proteger a las personas en riesgo de sufrir crímenes atroces en masa.

La noticia más grande se mantuvo escondida, como siempre, debido a la preocupación cotidiana que tienen los medios de comunicación con relación a los actuales derramamientos de sangre: durante las dos últimas décadas, las grandes guerras y los grandes episodios de violencia en el mundo han llegado a ser mucho menos frecuentes y mortales. Después de un momento culminante a finales de 1980 y durante los primeros años de la década de 1990, se ha producido un descenso de más del 50% en el número de grandes conflictos entre y dentro de los Estados, en el número de atrocidades masivas genocidas como también en otras atrocidades masivas, y en el número de personas que murieron (number of people killed) a consecuencia de dichos conflictos y atrocidades.

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