Regreso a la decadencia de Occidente

MADRID – Desde la publicación en 1918 del primer volumen de La decadencia de Occidente de Oswald Spengler, las profecías sobre la muerte segura de lo que llamó la “civilización fáustica” han sido un tema recurrente para los pensadores y los intelectuales públicos. Se podría considerar que las crisis actuales en los Estados Unidos y en Europa, consecuencia primordialmente de los fallos éticos inherentes al capitalismo de los EE.UU. y a las deficiencias de funcionamiento de Europa, atribuyen crédito a la opinión de Spengler sobre la insuficiencia de la democracia y a su rechazo de la civilización occidental por estar impulsada esencialmente por una corruptora avidez de dinero.

Pero el determinismo en la Historia siempre ha sido derrotado por las imprevisibles fuerzas de la voluntad humana y en este caso por la extraordinaria capacidad de Occidente para renovarse, aun después de derrotas cataclismáticas. Cierto es que Occidente ya no está solo al dictar el programa mundial y sus valores han de verse cada vez más impugnados por potencias en ascenso, pero el proceso de su decadencia no es lineal e irreversible.

No cabe la menor duda de que el dominio militar de Occidente y su ventaja económica han quedado gravemente reducidos recientemente. En 2000, el PIB de los Estados Unidos era ocho veces mayor que el de China; hoy sólo lo es dos veces. Peor aún: unas atroces desigualdades de renta, una clase media exprimida y la evidencia de unos deslices éticos y una impunidad generalizados están alimentando un desencanto con la democracia y una pérdida cada  vez mayor de la confianza en un sistema que ha traicionado el sueño americano de un progreso y una mejora constantes.

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