Temná stránka sebeurčení

CAMBRIDGE – Národní sebeurčení se jeví jako přímočarý mravní princip, leč přináší řadu problémů. Poté, co Rusko v srpnu 2008 vyslalo do Gruzie vojáky, uznalo nezávislost dvou odštěpeneckých gruzínských provincií, Jižní Osetie a Abcházie. Když jeho příkladu následovalo několik dalších států, Rusko poukázalo na to, že státy NATO použily síly, aby pomohly Kosovu osamostatnit se od Srbska.

Sebeurčení se obecně definuje jako právo národa vytvořit si vlastní stát. Jde o důležitý princip, ale kdo je oním „já“, které si určuje svůj osud?

Vezměme si Somálsko 60. let minulého století. Afričané využili zásady sebeurčení k ukončení koloniální nadvlády. Na rozdíl od mnoha jiných afrických států byli Somálci zhruba stejného jazykového i etnického původu. Naproti tomu sousední Keňu zformovala koloniální vláda z desítek různých národů či kmenů rozmanitých jazykových kořenů a zvyků. Část severní Keni obývali Somálci.

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