民族自决的阴暗面

剑桥-民族自决似乎是一个简单明了的道德原则,但是,它充满了各种各样的问题。在2008年8月份向格鲁吉亚派出军队后,俄罗斯承认了两个从格鲁吉亚脱离的省份南奥塞梯(South Ossetia)和阿布哈兹(Abkhazia)的独立。但是,当几个其他的国家依样行事的时候,俄罗斯却指出,北约国家使用了武力帮助科索沃从塞尔维亚分离出来。

民族自决通常被定义为一个民族建立自己的国家的权利。这是一个重要的原则,但是,谁是那个作出决定的自己 呢?

 回想一下20世纪60年代的索马里。那时,非洲人民利用民族自决原则来结束殖民统治。和许多其他的非洲国家不同,索马里族人几乎拥有同样的语言和种族背景。相反,邻近的肯尼亚是在殖民统治时期由许多不同的民族或部族形成的,各民族或部族的语言背景和习惯都不相同。而在肯尼亚北部的一部分地区,居住着索马里族人。

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