Le chant funèbre de Chypre

PRINCETON – L’Europe peut choisir sa propre musique pour accompagner sa dernière crise. La première de « All Things Fall Apart » (Tout s’écroule, ndt) de 50 Cent vient juste d’avoir lieu à Berlin – un choix qui pourrait être approprié. Le continent peut aussi se tourner vers le passé et choisir Giuseppe Verdi, né il y a deux cents ans, et dont l’avant dernière œuvre, probablement le meilleur de ses opéras, débute sur la côte chypriote dans une tempête d’une fantastique violence avec les premiers mots de son héro, Othello: Esultate, réjouissez-vous ! La guerre est gagnée ; mais sa jalousie anéantira plus tard cet accomplissement.

Il semble que Chypre soit aujourd’hui sauvée. Mais ce sauvetage a nourri un désaccord croissant qui compromet l’avenir de l’intégration européenne, en partie la conséquence d’une sorte de reconstitution des bouleversements du début du vingtième siècle – particulièrement la Grande Dépression – dans les débats qui ont entouré la débâcle financière post-2008 et la crise de l’euro qui s’en est suivie.

L’effondrement économique de l’entre-deux guerres était devenu insoluble parce qu’il coïncidait aussi avec une crise de la stabilité sociale, de la démocratie, et de l’ordre politique international. Les tensions sociales furent exacerbées par les faillites généralisées et le chômage, rendant à terme impossible une gestion politique démocratique normale. En Allemagne, épicentre de l’éclatement démocratique, les radicaux de droite comme de gauche fulminèrent contre l’accord de paix d’après guerre et le Traité de Versailles.

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