塞浦路斯:欧盟的挽歌?

普林斯顿——如果要为欧洲经济危机配上音乐,可以有大把选择。在柏林,美国说唱歌手50 Cent自编自演的电影《土崩瓦解》德文版刚刚上映,影片原声配乐就很应景。或者,欧洲还可以向威尔第(Giuseppe Verdi)致敬。这位诞生于200年前的意大利作曲家的倒数第二部(也许是最伟大的一部)歌剧《奥赛罗》是这样开场的:暴风骤雨的塞浦路斯岛海岸,主人公奥赛罗惊世骇俗地大呼一声“欢呼吧!我们凯旋了”。但奥赛罗的赫赫功名最终却毁于他自己的嫉妒心。

如今,塞浦路斯貌似得救了。但这一救援行动扩大了裂痕,威胁到欧洲一体化的未来。之所以会是这个结果,原因之一在于,人们在辩论2008年后的金融崩溃和随后的欧元危机时,激活了人们对20世纪早期的动荡岁月——特别是大萧条的记忆。

两次世界大战之间的经济塌陷之所以难以收拾,是因为它同时是一场社会稳定、民主制度和国际政治秩序的危机。四处蔓延的破产和失业潮加剧了社会矛盾,最终瓦解了正常民主政治的基础。在德国这个民主制大地震的震中,右翼和左翼的激进分子都对凡尔赛合约确立的战后和平体制怒火中烧。

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