La cultura empresarial

En todo el mundo los gobiernos quieren promover el espíritu empresarial. Aunque la mayoría de las empresas incipientes jamás llegarán a crecer, cada pequeña compañía es un experimento y se necesita mucha experimentación para producir de vez en cuando la empresa que puede transformar la economía de una nación --o incluso cobrar importancia internacional. En pocas palabras, el espíritu empresarial es una incubadora esencial para el éxito económico a largo plazo.

Para explicar las variaciones en los niveles de espíritu empresarial en distintos países se presta mucha atanción a las diferencias en las actitudes y políticas nacionales. Pero también hay diferencias en los niveles de espíritu empresarial al interior de cada país. Se dice que la gente de Shanghai tiene más madera de empresario que la de Beijing. La gente de la ciudad ucraniana de Kherson se inclina más a las actividades empresariales que la de Kiev.

En un estudio reciente, Mariassunta Giannetti y Andrei Simonov de la Escuela de Economía de Estocolmo mostraron la magnitud de las diferencias en los niveles de espíritu empresarial de los muncipios suecos. Definieron a los empresarios como aquellas personas que declaran ingresos de una compañía bajo su control y en la que trabajan por lo menos medio tiempo, y detectaron que la proporción de empresarios en la población difiere sustancialmente en los 289 municipios que estudiaron, y va del 1.5% al 18.5%.

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