La culture de la création d'entreprise

Les gouvernements du monde entier souhaitent encourager la création d'entreprises. Même si de nombreuses start-ups ne prendront jamais d'ampleur, chaque petite entreprise est une expérience, et il en faut beaucoup pour donner naissance à une seule susceptible de transformer l'économie d'une nation, ou même simplement d'acquérir une dimension internationale. En bref, la création d'entreprise est un incubateur, par ailleurs essentiel au succès économique à long terme.

De nos jours, pour expliquer les différences en termes de créations d'entreprises d'un pays à l'autre, on se penche sur les dissemblances des mentalités et des politiques nationales. Mais il faut aussi tenir compte de grandes différences à l'intérieur des pays. Les habitants de Shanghai sont paraît-il plus entreprenant de ce point de vue que ceux de Beijing. Les habitants de la ville ukrainienne de Kherson le sont davantage que ceux de Kiev.

Dans une étude récente, Mariassunta Giannetti et Andrei Simonov, de la Stockholm School of Economics, ont montré l'ampleur des différences dans le domaine de la création d'entreprises dans les villes suédoises. Ils définissent les entrepreneurs comme des gens qui déclarent des ressources émanant d'entreprises qu'ils contrôlent et dans lesquelles ils travaillent au moins à temps partiel, et constatent que la proportion de dirigeants d'entreprises dans la population diffère de façon conséquente dans les 289 villes qu'ils ont étudiées, variant de 1,5% à 18,5%.

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