La Chine et la Révolution culturelle

Ce mois-ci, c'est le 40° anniversaire du début de la Révolution culturelle par Mao. Pourtant, malgré 20 ans de libéralisation économique, les blessures qu'elle a infligées ne sont pas cicatrisées et c'est encore un sujet tabou. Les dirigeants actuels n'osent pas se confronter à leur propre passé et à leur responsabilité morale. Trois décennies après la fin de la Révolution culturelle, l'examen critique dont la Chine a tant besoin n'a pas encore commencé.

Certes, le Parti communiste estime que la Révolution culturelle a été une catastrophe, un jugement que partage la majorité de l'opinion publique. Mais les dirigeants chinois n'acceptent d'évoquer la Révolution culturelle qu'à l'intérieur de ce cadre officiel et bannissent toute autre version. La version officielle largement diffusée, ainsi que l'utilisation de Lin Piao (qui a été vice-président de Mao et son successeur désigné avant de se rebeller contre lui) et de la Bande des quatre comme bouc émissaire, fait passer au second plan les crimes de Mao et du Parti, ainsi que les défauts inhérents au système.

Les principaux acteurs de la Révolution culturelle responsables de tant de violence absurde gardent le silence ou avancent des justifications douteuses. De même, la plupart des victimes se réfugient derrière toutes sortes d'excuses pour ne pas revenir sur leurs souvenirs. Quant à ceux qui ont été tout à la fois bourreaux et victimes, ils n'acceptent de parler que des persécutions qu'ils ont subies.

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