有关遗传学的文化偏见

所有文化都会在人们的心里打上深刻的烙印,告诉他们自己是谁、从哪里来、怎么做才能适应社会。比如,近代欧洲流行一种观点,那就是如果一个女人婚前有过性行为,她就可能把爱人的印记留在自己体内,如果她婚后生子,小孩就可能会更像她从前的恋人,而不像现在的丈夫。这就为人们看重女性贞操找到了正当的理由。

人们对遗传问题的看法是一种非常有力的文化武器,但这种武器却并非为近代社会所独有。即便是现代科学也不乏遗传方面的文化观念,而这些观念很难与复杂的资料和高科技完全分开,人们相信这些科技手段使我们能够客观、不存偏见地认识这个世界。

在人类起源领域,人们都知道人类的DNA序列近99%都与黑猩猩完全相同。从这个角度讲,听到我们与黑猩猩无甚差别(我们天生注定有侵略性、也拥有类人猿的所有特征)、或者猩猩也有人权之类的结论也不足为怪。这里,社会意义与遗传信仰再次融合在一起。

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